Water level estimation from time series of crowd-sourced images
This project shall develop a deep learning approach to estimate changing water level from time series of ground-level images collected with an app.
Assessing cocoa agroforest shade cover and biodiversity from space with deep learning to enhance smallholder climate resilience
This project shall explore how to combine satellite images and deep learning to assess the amount of shade tree cover of cocoa farms at large scale.
Development of a passive dynamic treadmill for quadruped leg testing
The goal of this project is to develop a passive sensorized treadmill for testing of novel quadruped leg prototypes.
Feet design for legged planetary exploration robots
The influence of feet design features such as (sole area, studs etc.) on traction performance shall be experimentally investigated on a variety of planetary soil.
Fatigue behavior investigation of Ti-6Al-4V additive manufactured lattices
The aim of the project is to use observations from miniature specimen testing for predicting the fatigue behaviour of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V lattice structures.
Economic analysis of precision farming technologies in Switzerland
This thesis addresses the drivers of profitability of precision farming technologies in small-scale Swiss agricultural systems. The thesis bridges between technological and agronomic foundations of precision farming and economic analysis.
Deformation analysis and finite element modelling for Ti-6Al-4V additive manufactured lattices
The aim of the project is to develop material constitutive models for representing the deformation behaviour of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V lattices.
Real-time Dynamic Scene Reconstruction
Autonomous interaction in real-world environments requires robots to build an internal representation of the observed scene and the objects therein. The goal of this project is to integrate efficient tracking of multiple (potentially) moving objects into an existing scene reconstruction framework.
Brain plasticity in spinal cord injury patients
We are looking for a MSc student to help run a project aimed at investigating brain plasticity in tetraplegic spinal cord injury patients
Hail risk and risk management in Swiss agriculture
Hail events constitute an important risk for fruit growers’ income. Various risk management strategies exist. The central question of this thesis is whether high-resolution hail risk data can improve our understanding of hail risk management uptake?
Manufacturability constraints for automated design of additive manufactured manifolds
At pd|z a design toolbox is developed to simplify and accelerate the design generation of complex additive manufactured parts. The goal of the thesis is to develop and implement algorithms that adapt the generated designs with respect to the overhang restriction. Manifolds are used as an application
Master Thesis: Real Time Enhancement of Nutrition Data for Groceries with Mixed Reality
You will use computer vision to identify food products and build a Unity application for Hololens or Magic Leap one in which users will become able to see the health impact of ingredient data. The app will then help the user to make the healthiest choice amongst the given alternatives.
Themo-Mechanical Simulation for Additive Manufacturing using GPU capacities
This work proposes to implement a thermo-mechanical simulation using GPU capabilities in order to drastically decrease the simulation time. This will aim at modeling the distortion occuring during the Laser Powder Bed Fusion process. The result will be benchmarked against both real printed part and commercial simualtion solutions (ANSYS).
Control Algorithm Development for a Series Elastic Actuated Exoskeleton
Robot-assisted therapy of stroke patients is a promising approach to improve the therapy outcome and to tackle the challenges of demographic ageing. Using a novel 6 DoF exoskeleton prototype, we want to investigate/develop new control strategies for the next generation of these robots.
Intern/Tutorial Assistant (Hiwi) for mechatronics
We ( http://crl.ethz.ch/ ) are urgently looking for an intern/Tutorial Assistant (Hiwi) for mechatronics evaluation of a modular robotics platform in development. Examples of the systems that you will get to build, control and test are shown in pictures.
Development of a biocompatible silicone strip with embedded Hall-effect sensors to allow continuous monitoring of hemodynamic parameters
In this study different concepts of silicone strips with embedded magnetic sensors will be explored. The sensos will be evaluated with in-vitro and ex-vivo experiments. The aim of the project is enable continuous measuring of hemodynamic parameters by monitoring the arterial wall displacement
4D soft robots for next-generation surgery
The student will develop magnetic soft robots for minimally invasive surgery.
3D printing and characterization of miniaturized cellulose-based composites
Protocols for lithography based production of nanostructures based on nanocellulose composites will be developed. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the patterned structures will be analyzed.
Vacuum compatible 3D printed structures for building engineering applications
Advancements in the field of Digital Fabrication (DFAB)/ Additive Manufacturing (AM) has created opportunities for disruptive innovation in the building engineering sector. The Architecture and Building Systems group at ETH Zurich is using these techniques to create building structures capable of he
Modeling and Control of Energy Consumption in Buildings: Thermal and Visual Comfort
In the context of global warming, a challenging issue is reducing the amount of energy consumption, specifically in the building sector and meanwhile respecting the existing constraints. This necessitates utilizing advanced modelling techniques and control strategies for buildings energy systems.
How to manufacture the worlds largest thermoplastic composite profile
The objective of this thesis is the manufacturing feasibility investigation of large diameter, thermoplastic profiles based on the experimental and numerical study of processing conditions and material characteristics of variable diameter rods ranging from Ø5 to Ø20 mm.
Experimental investigation and numerical simulation of residual stresses in pultruded high performance composites.
The objective of this thesis is to investigate the formation of residual stresses in high performance thermoplastic composites and their influence on the material performance. The experimental approach and results will be validated through material testing and a thermomechanical FEM model.
Sensorimotor processing during bimanual movements
Beneath receptors in our skin, muscles and joints, the prediction our own movements by our brain determines the processing of sensory information during voluntary movement. The present study investigates if different bimanual movements underlie a different processing of sensory input.
Mechatronic Design of a Wheel Electrode Sensor for Robotic Inspection
The goal of this project is to design, build, and integrate a light-weight wheeled electrochemical sensor on a flying robot, and test its ability to evaluate the state of concrete infrastructure
Model-mediated haptic telemanipulation for robotic door opening
This project aims to design a haptic rendering architecture based on model mediation for tele-operated robots. The door of a switchboard cabinet should be modeled and opened from a teleoperator.
Void assessment of thermoplastic composites using contrasting agent assisted µ-computer tomography
The objective of this thesis is to investigate the potential of micro-computer tomography (µ-ct) to assess the void content of high performance thermoplastic composites.
Process Automation and Reduction of Post-Processing in Additive Manufacturing (AM) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM)
Industry related research project in Additive manufacturing.
Autonomous, Information-Based Radiation Mapping using a UAV
The goal of this problem is to develop and implement a exploration and mapping strategy for autonomous radiation mapping using a small Unmanned Aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with visual, inertial and radiation sensors onboard.
Installation and setting into operation of a dynamic actuator testbench
The goal of this project is to install a testing environment for characterizing the dynamic behaviour of newly developed high-torque robotic actuators.
In-situ polymerization on glass fibers for high-volume manufacturing of thermoplastic composites
This work explores polymerization reations which are suitable for the continuous manufacturing of glass fiber - thermoplastic bicomponent fibers.
Semantic-based Path Planning for Autonomous Robot Navigation
The goal of this project is to implement a path planner which uses semantic information in order to perform autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance for different robots while navigating towards a goal configuration.
Design of a Multichannel Microfluidic AFM System
Design, Fabrication and Analysis of a Multichannel Hollow Cantilever Probe for the Fluid Force Microscope (FluidFM).
Consolidation of commingled hybrid bicomponent fiber preforms
This work explores the feasibility of low fiber volume fraction bicomponent fibers for the high-volume manufacturing of thermoplastic composites for structural applications. You will model the consolidation of those novel hybrid bicomponent fiber arrangements and compare them to existing materials. These findings will then be experimentally verified at CMASLab.
Time-domain passivity based control for the haptic teleoperation of ALMA over delayed networks
This project aims to implement a control architecture for the haptic teleoperation of ALMA.
Development of a reflection-type near-field optical microscope
In this project a reflection-type near-field optical microscope will be designed, developed and characterized.
Automated nanoparticle loading
Levitation optomechanics systems consist of a nanoparticle that is optically trapped and levitated by a focused laser beam under vacuum conditions. The aim of this project is to design and build a reliable and automated nanoparticle loading process that can be triggered remotely.
PhD thesis: Micro-beads building trophic networks for Gut Microbiota Biotherapeutics production
This project aims to develop technologies for the controlled production of live biotherapeutics containing bacterial consortia and will as well enhance fundamental research in synthetic gut microbial ecology.
Probabilistic Finite Element Model of Functional Spine Units from Deep Learning Segmented Images
Our project at the Orthopedic Biomechanics group in Balgrist Campus in collaboration with Uniklinik Balgrist aims to augment the preoperative imaging data on which a surgeon can rely. This problem is addressed with the development of an adaptable pipeline that can automatically extract features on clinical data of healthy and pathological vertebrae, based on machine learning techniques. These features will be used in different simulation environments like Finite Element models and Multibody Dynamic models to provide information about different surgical procedures.
Fast computation of Karma equilibria for interacting agents
This work builds upon very recent workon distributed interaction systems that we call Karma systems. We propose a mathematical formalism and numerical computation to predict user behavior in these systems. Your task is to 1. Improve existing code by making itfaster and more modular. 2.Design and run numerical experiments on individual agents interacting in a bigger social systemto understand the trade-offs of parameters that dictate what agents care about and how they interact.3. Quantify “social mobility”within the social system and find what parameters influence it most.
Theoryof Karma equilibria for interacting agents
This work builds upon very recent workon distributed interaction systems that we call Karma systems. We propose a mathematical formalism and numerical computation to predict user behavior in these systems.Your task is to 1. Extend the theory to the Markov chain case. 2. Evaluate the effect of having mixed populations of agents with different attributes. 3. Understandthe effect of time discounting on agent strategies and optimality of solutions. 4. Can we quantify social mobility in the social systemand connected it to population mixing?
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Image Reconstruction Using Machine Learning
Dynamic Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging offers exquisite views of cardiac anatomy and function. The objective of this project is to develop and implement methods that allow learning a data model from large sets of training data to be used in nonlinear data recovery from highly undersampled MR data.
Development of Automatized Finite Element Models for Instrumented Spine Simulations.
Implementation of different surgical interventions, such as posterior instrumentation and cage placement into an automatic FE-Element pipeline, for functional outcome prediction.
Biomechanical Modeling of the Impact of a Mothers Movement on the Unborn Child
It is well known, that frequent mechanical stimulation such as rocking have positive effects on development and sleep of humans. The first time such stimulations are experienced by a foetus when the mother moves. However, effects of simple every day movements performed by the mother such as walking
Predicting Recovery of Patients after Stroke
The aim of this project is to develop a model that predicts how well after-stroke patients recover their upper limb motor functions 3 months after stroke onset.
Designer Superamolecular Hydrogels to Probe Bone Biology
Living tissues remodel themselves to adapt to their mechanical environment using self-assembled fibrillar proteins. By contrast, conventional synthetic materials lack this property. This project aims to build self-assembled, mechano-responsive fibrillar gels as dynamic extracellular matrix mimics.
Intelligent Bed for Sleep Apnea Therapy
Sleep apnea is the most common sleep disorder. Sleep apnea patients stop breathing several times per hour during the night, which results in fragmented sleep, daytime sleepiness, cognitive and cardio-vascular problems. Many of these patients would experience fewer apneas if they would alter their sl
Design a bed that cares for you
One third of the global population has sleep problems. Usually these sleep problems are treated with drugs, which are highly addictive. Due to habituation (process of getting used to stimulus), patients often require a higher dosage after a short period. Within the SOMNOMAT project, we are developin
Processing of Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) with Selective Laser Melting
In this work, a parameter set will be determined to process a NiTi SMA on a SLM machine. The produced samples will be fully characterized, i.e. optical analyses & mechanical tests. Further, the influence of SLM process control on alloy composition and phase transition temperature is investigated.
In-vivo Quantification of Dorsal Collapse during Fracture Healing of the Distal Radius
Registered, time-lapse in-vivo images of distal radius fractures provide the opportunity to investigate the link between the micromechanical environment and undesired patient outcomes (i.e. dorsal tilt, shortening of the radius, etc.) within the first year post-fracture.
Paleomagnetic properties across the western Gotthard massif
The newly build “Bedretto Underground Laboratory for Geoenergies” is a unique research infrastructure of the ETH Zurich. The underground laboratory is a 5.2 kilometer long tunnel connecting the Bedretto valley with the Furka railway tunnel crosscutting sequences of gneiss and a granitic body intruded into the crystalline massif (see figure). The tunnel with its rock outcrops allows investigation of a gradient in rock magnetic properties across the strike of the regional metamorphic fabric.
Biomimetic 3D-Printing of mini Bone Organs
Existing tissue engineering strategies fail to recreate the architecture and function of bone tissues which present a hierarchical organization over different length scales. Here we propose to apply high-resolution 3D-printing to sculpture mini-bone-organs in a petri dish.
Internship on Decarbonisation Energy Technologies
Compile and visualize information on decarbonisation energy technologies for a comprehensive data repository. This will provide great insights on novel energy technology and their key characteristics.
Learn Depth from Multiple Input Modalities
Learn depth from RGB frames and sparse depth information.
Visual Servoing for Mobile Manipulation
Implement visual servoing on ALMA, a quadruped with a mounted arm. By the end of the project, the robot should be able to grasp a detected object reliably, even in the face of model inaccuracies.
Control of an autonomous paramodel
In this project an embedded controller will be designed and implemented on an adapted RC paramodel, allowing it to fly autonomously and safely in a wide range of conditions and loads.
Thermochronology to characterize subduction complex exhumation and implications for western North American margin evolution
Exhumed subduction complexes provide a window into modern subduction processes, but exhumational overprint makes relating fossil and modern deformation difficult. Understanding exhumation timing is therefore crucial for interpreting subduction complex deformation.
Master thesis "Gestagen metabolites during late pregnancy in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)"
Elephants are among the few mammalians which do not use progesterone as functional gestagen. A detailed analysis of specific progestins using LC-MS/MS will unravel the gestagen meabolites of Asian elephants during late pregnancy and calving.
Wheelchair Biomechanics: Development of Novel Steering Technologies
Help us design wheelchairs that are healthier, easier and more pleasant to use.
Through Wall Sensing
By Through Wall Sensing (TWS), it is possible to sense through walls or similar structures. The goal of this project is to implement such a TWS system using Software Defined Radios (SDR) and the GNU Radio environment.
Combining Calcium Imaging and fMRI: Understanding the Neurophysiology of the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Response
Advances in MR technology are rapidly increasing our imaging capabilities, however we still don't know what the BOLD signal actually represents. In the lab we try to gain a better understanding of the properties of brain circuits to increase the capabilities of fMRI.
Wheelchair Movement In Everday Life
Help us design wheelchairs that are healthier, easier and more pleasant to use.
ANYmal at the MBZIRC Competition
RSL is competing in the 2020 MBZIRC Competition with ALMA on wheels. There are two tasks: constructing a wall from bricks, and extinguishing simulated fires. The final system will be completely autonomous. Students will have the opportunity to travel to Abu Dhabi for the competition.
Super paramagnetic manipulation of nanowires for engineered strain sensors used in biomedical implants
Fabrication of biocompatible strain sensors, resistive or capacitive to be used in-vivo to measure deformation of different tissues. The project is quite broad so many backgrounds will suit. Electrical Engineers, Material Scientist, Biomedical Engineers, among others.
Motion Optimization for Quadrupeds with Actuated Wheels In Unstructured Terrain
Traditional legged robots are capable of traversing challenging terrain, but lack in energy efficiency and speed when compared to wheeled systems. We propose a novel motion planner and controller framework which enables a legged robot equipped with powered wheels to perform hybrid locomotion.
Predicting alfalfa hay prices using machine learning
The aim of this master thesis is to improve forecast of alfalfa hay prices in the US using machine learning, accounting for records of future prices and other macro indicators as well as ex-ante and ex-post weather variables.
Master/Semester Thesis: Autonomous MAV Exploration using Reinforcement Learning
The task of autonomously exploring an unknown environment is one of the most challenging tasks in robotics. In this thesis we would like to tackle this challenge using reinforcement learning. More Information: https://bit.ly/2Ily1qG
Design and manufacture of a bioreactor to apply compressive and shear forces to hydrogel samples
This project focuses on designing and manufacturing a bioreactor to apply compressive and shearing forces to cell-embedded hydrogel samples under real-world mechanical conditions in a sterile environment.
3D Printing of Multifunctional Materials for Adaptive systems
3D printing comes with the advantages of customizing a product towards individual needs. More and more functional materials are being printed to increase the realm of 3D printing towards mainstream fabrication.
Optimization of 3D printed integrated sensors for composite materials
Integrated sensors aid in real time damage detection in structural components of aerospace structures, turbines, prosthesis and automobiles. The application of these sensors starts even before the service life of the product via online monitoring during cure, repairs & lasts beyond its designed life
Master Thesis on the Effect of morphology and density of Si surface precipitates on the anodizing of Al-Si alloys
Possibility for a Master Thesis on the topic "Effect of morphology and density of Si surface precipitates on the anodizing of Al-Si alloys"
Carbon fibers as electrodes in lithium ion structural batteries
Concerns of oil depletion, coupled with the consequences of climate change facilitate the need to reduce our dependence upon fossil fuel energy sources. This work investigates multi-functional materials to provide both electrical energy and the ability to support loads, i.e. structural batteries.
Development of a multi-channel Transmit/ Receive Volume Coil (Antenna) for in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Zero Echo Time
Design and test a multi-channel transmit/ receive volume coil for in vivo zero echo time (ZTE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on a human scanner.
Design and Analysis of the Deployment of a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Transcatheter Aortic Heart Valve Stent
This thesis deals with the design and analysis of a deployment mechanisms to reliably deliver and deploy a fiber reinforced transcatheter aortic heart valve stent inside an aortic annulus. The delivery device has to be designed completely and the deployment of the structure analyzed experimentally.
Bachelor Thesis on preventive digital health interventions for major complications in type-1-diabetes
BA Student wanted for an in-depth exploration into the topic of preventive digital health interventions applied to type-1-diabetes.
Investigations on Ultra-Thin Carbon Fiber-PEEK Composites for Foldable Space Structures
This thesis deals with the manufacturing of deployable space structure architectures from novel Carbon-Fiber reinforced PEEK material. The properties of the material need to be investigated with regard to foldability, and novel ways to manufacture space structure architectures have to be found.
Design and fabrication of a multi-robot collaborative mobile robotic system prototype
The main objective of this project is design and fabrication of a multi-robot mobile robotic system prototype. Current mobile robotic systems use a heavy industrial manipulator on an even heavier mobile base. We want to change this paradigm by creating a lightweight and stiff mobile robotic system.
Collaborator in assisting with qualitative data collection and analysis
A collaborator for the joint project with SBB Cargo entitled “Future Environmental Performance of Swiss Freight Transport: Impacts on Rail Cargo Competitiveness”, to assist with the qualitative data collection and analysis, for three months, maximum 50 hours per month and with high flexibility
Investigating axon initial segment plasticity using high-density microelectrode arrays
Characterization of extracellular electrophysiological properties of the axon-initial segment associated with its structural plasticity in response to varying firing dynamics using high-density microelectrode arrays (HD-MEA) and optical imaging.
Quadrupedal Robots Literature Review
In this Studies on Mechatronics the student is asked to thoroughly review the state of the art in quadrupedal robotics, to structure and compare all the different developments, and to write a corresponding summary paper.
Research project/Master’s thesis: Bioinformatic pipeline development of an algorithm for smart RBS library design
Smart library design helps optimization processes in synthetic biology and biotechnology. Our algorithm generates partially degenerate synthetic regulatory sequences that code for practically applicable libraries. These libraries help, for instance, to implement synthetic pathway designs.
Dynamic motion planning and control for a ball-balancing mobile manipulator
The goal of this project is to develop a control framework for a ball-balancing robot with an arm. The design of such a system should be aimed at minimizing the computational cost of the planner and generating dynamic motions for the robot.
Mass Transport Across Atomically-Thin Nanoporous Membranes
Selective transport across nanopores is present in fields ranging from ion channels in biological cells to industrial scale water desalination and gas separation. We study nanofluidic transport across nanopores at the limit of membrane thinness with the single-atom-thin membrane material graphene.
A Magnetic Catheter with Programmable Magnetizations
Magnetic catheters are promising technologies for minimally invasive surgeries due to the ability to remotely bend the tip using dynamic magnetic fields. Such catheters can be used for interventional therapies to treat cardiac arrhythmia and aneurysm.
Automated identification of two-dimensional crystals based on optical contrast difference
The goal of this project is to develop an automated setup that is able to identify flakes of different thicknesses on Si/SiO2 substrates by analyzing the difference in optical contrast between the crystals and the substrate.
Optical trapping and cooling at telecom wavelengths
The goal of this master project is to set up an optical trap for a dielectric nanoparticle at telecom wavelengths and evaluate its performance for feedback cooling in comparison to existing experiments at 1064 nm.
Optimal State Estimation of a Levitated Nanoparticle
In this project, a Kalman filter will be implemented to estimate the time-varying state of a nanoparticle held in the focus of a laser beam. The state of the particle will then be used in a feedback loop to act back on the particle and to provide ultimate control over the nanoparticle's dynamics.
Optoelectronics with two-dimensional atomic crystals
For device applications, it is desirable to create functional hetero-structures by stacking two-dimensional atomic crystals on top of each other, forming so-called Van der Waals (VdW) heterostructures. We study the fabrication and properties of such optoelectronic devices based on 2D materials.
Demand Side Flexibilities for Collaborative Smart Grids
Residential areas in Switzerland are transitioning from passive consumers to active prosumers. The goal of this project is to develop and implement a flexibility description for interacting smart grids, capable of leveraging the full potential of active demand sides.
Interaction control strategies on hand assessment robot for stroke patients
ETH MIKE is a robotic device for somatosensory, motor and sensorimotor assessment of hand function in stroke patients, developed at RELab. The aim of the project is to improve and characterize transparency of the robot. Multiple control strategies will be tested and assessed to design an optimum human-robot interaction control.
Large-Scale Volumetric Mapping and Global Planning for UGVs
The goal of this project is to develop mapping strategies for enabling global path planning in real-world large-scale environments.
Self-induced back action trapping
Self-induced backaction (SIBA) trapping is a concept developed in optics for trapping of polarizable particles [1,2]. The goal of this project is the analyze, design and characterize an electromechanical analog of SIBA trapping.
Liquid armor? A study of projectile resistance in shear thickening materials
Body armor is used by police and military personnel for protection against gunshots and projectiles. This body armor needs to be both flexible, so that they can move easily and hard, in order to stop on impact and protect the wearer. A shear thickening material allows for both us these traits
Collection and analysis of healthy control data with the ETH MIKE
ETH MIKE is a robotic device for somatosensory, motor and sensorimotor assessment of hand function in stroke patients, developed at RELab. The aim of this project is collect and analyse the control data from neurologically intact participants. This will allow us to determine the healthy norms for th
Bubbles of Sand?
The Rayleigh instability manifests itself in a broad range of systems ranging from the formation of mushroom-shaped clouds in nuclear explosions to fingering patterns in supernova explosions. Our goal is to continue study the R-T instability. and compare with naturally occurring R-T instabilities
Master Thesis on Development of Novel Joining Techniques for Power Semiconductor Packaging
Possibility for a Master Thesis on the topic "Development of Novel Joining Techniques for Power Semiconductor Packaging"
Analyzing The Role of Perception Latency in High Speed Sense and Avoid
To prevent a collision with an obstacle or an incoming object, a robot needs to detect them as fast as possible and execute a safe maneuver to avoid them. The higher the relative speed between the robot and the object, the more critical the role of perception latency becomes. The goal of this project is to extend our previous work (http://rpg.ifi.uzh.ch/docs/RAL19_Falanga.pdf) on the analysis of the role of perception latency in high speed sense and avoid, in order to consider different robot dynamics and multiple scenarios, such as cases including dynamic obstacles.
Performance analysis and characterization of a morphing quadrotor
The goal of this project is to study the impact of the morphology assumed by a quadrotor able to change its shape in-flight on the performance of its propulsion system.
DNA Aptamer-Based Electronic/Plasmonic Biosensors
Integrating DNA-based biorecognition elements termed aptamers that recognize chemical targets with high specificity and selectivity into next-generation electronic/plasmonic biosensors.
Collaborative Smart Grids
This project aims to increase the benefit for all participants in smart grids. For that, a novel demand response scheme will be derived to optimize the interests of all stakeholders in the supply chain of electrical energy.
Impact of insecticides on the fish developing nervous system
Insecticides are extensively used in Switzerland and all over the world to control pests and pathogens in medicine, households, and agriculture. Via spray drift, leaching or run-off they find their way into the aquatic environment where they pose a risk to non-target organisms, such as fish. Toxic e

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